The Use of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Methods in Identification of Factors Influencing the Adoption of IFRS for SMEs
Keywords:SME, IFRS for SME, harmonization, adoption of IFRS for SME, cluster analysis, t-test
AbstractPurpose of the article: Small and medium sized companies have an important position in the economy. Different generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) can be considered as one of the most important obstacles in their actions on the international markets. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published an International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) designed for the use by small and medium-sized entities (SMEs) to meet their financial reporting needs. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the current approach to the IFRS for SME adoption over the world, with respect to the level of economic development of countries and quality of their financial reporting. In the paper are identified common characteristics of countries (indicators) which have already the IFRS for SME adopted. Methodology and methods: The statistical methods were used for the comparison of countries which have already the IFRS for SMEs adopted with those which have not adopted it yet. The level of economic development of the particular country and other characteristics were used for comparison. The confidence intervals for selected indicators characterising the clusters of countries with the same approach the IFRS for SMEs adoption. Scientific aim: The main scientific aim of this paper is to identify indicators characterizing the economic level of the country in conjunction with other indicators describing the financial reporting quality, which are different in the case of countries that acceded to the adoption of IFRS for SMEs as their generally accepted accounting principles from countries that adoption rather reject and determine the values of these indicators characteristic of each group, created confidence intervals used for the purpose of access prediction for adoption of IFRS for SMEs in countries, in which their attitude to adoption is not yet clear. Findings: It is obvious from results of analysis, that the average values significantly differs between the countries which have adopted IFRS for SMEs and countries which have not. Countries having the positive attitude towards IFRS for SMEs have lower values of indicators. The most important difference has been found in the indicator of GDP per capita, for its value does not fall within the set intervals. Conclusions: The application of statistical methods has demonstrated that the countries which the IFRS for SMEs already adopted have significantly lower level of GDP per capita in comparison to countries, which are the adoption of IFRS for SMEs refusing. Similar hypothesis concerning the connection to willingness to adopt the standard and quality of the current financial reporting system of the country was tested. With 99% probability the different level of the average indicator of the quality of financial reporting was demonstrated for each group. The average lower level of all analyzed indicators was established in case of countries which the IFRS for SMEs have already adopted.
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